Scientific Research

Download all of the IM Specific Research in this booklet or select the indivudual papers to download below.
Download a full list of IM Research References.
Download The Science behind Interactive Metronome.





2013 Neuropsychology Effects of Interactive Metronome Therapy on Cognitive Functioning After Blast-Related Brain Injury: A Randomized Controlled Pilot TrialPreliminary findings of a randomized, controlled study concerning the efficacy of IM for remediation of cognitive deficits in active duty soldiers following blast-related mild-to-moderate TBI. Compared outcomes of standard rehabilitation care alone (OT, PT, SLP) to the same standard rehabilitation care + 15 IM treatment sessions. The group that received IM in addition to standard care outperformed the group who received standard rehabilitation care alone on several neuropsychological measures with medium to large effect sizes. Future publications based upon this study will reveal the results of 6 month follow-up testing (still in process) and analysis of electrocortical (EEG) data.
Lonnie A. Nelson, Margaret MacDonald, Christina Stall, and Renee Pazdan
2013 White paper presented at national AOTA conference 2013 A Collective Review of Completed Research Projects Evaluating the Effectiveness of the Interactive Metronome as an Occupational Therapy InterventionThe purpose of this project was to compile the different pilot studies that have been conducted of the last 5 years in regard to using the Interactive Metronome and identify the strengths and weakness of the outcomes and feasibility of using the Interactive Metronome as a viable treatment modality in the clinic.

  • Study 1 looked at normal individuals over the age of 55 and compared pre and post test IM scores and those of the NHPT. Notable improvements ave. 24% and above were achieved.
  • Study 2 compared those clients following standard of care Active ROM exercise program compared
to those who received the IM for 8 sessions.
The percentage of change was 24%for the IM participants as compared to 10% following the in home ROM
  • Study 3 looked at 2 CVA cases – Both making notable changes with 30 days longevity retest and 2nd
series of IM provided demonstrated performance improvement
  • Study 4 showed compared 22 individuals both Post CVA and Healthy Individual groups. There were no significant differences in percentage of improvement between groups, which indicates IM may be just as effective with individuals who are post-CVA as in healthy aging individuals
Leonard G Trujillo, OTR/L, FAOTA
2012 Communication Disorders Quarterly Reading Intervention Using Interactive Metronome in Children with Language and Reading Impairment: A Preliminary InvestigationThis study shows that after only 4 hours of IM training, larger gains were made in most areas of reading achievement over the control group. In a 4 week time period, the IM group did 15 minutes of training before a traditional reading intervention while the control group just did the traditional reading intervention. The improvements over the control group are listed below.

  • Reading Naturally +5.48
  • DIBELS-6 +5.77
  • GORT4-rate +0.96
  • GORT4-fluency +0.32
  • GORT4-comprehension +0.77
Michaela Ritter, Karen A. Colson, and Jungjun Park
2011 American Journal of Occupational Therapy Computer-Based Rhythm and Timing Training in Severe, Stroke-Induced Arm HemiparesisThis study of two stroke patients with hemipareis shows remarkable functional gains made using IM years after the patients suffered their strokes. SarahC. Beckelhimer, Ann E. Dalton, Charissa A. Richter, Valerie Hermann, and Stephen J. Page
2011 International Journal on Disability and Human Development Effects of motor sequence training on attentional performance in ADHD childrenThis study addresses the lack of motor coordination in ADHD children and suggests that going through IM training would have a significant effect on improving focus in ADHD children. Gerry Leisman and Robert Melillo
2009 Journal of Sports Science and Medicine Improved motor-timing: effects of synchronized metronome training on golf shot accuracyThis European study is an independent recreation of earlier IM research studying golfers. This new study showed the same results: working with IM’s timing exercises improves golfers’ control of their swing and improves shot accuracy. Marius Sommerand Louise Rönnqvist
2008 Contemporary Issues In Communication Science and Disorders A Preliminary Study of the Effects of Interactive Metronome Training on the Language Skills of an Adolescent Female With a Language Learning DisorderThis published study demonstrated the effect of IM training on expressive and receptive language skills in an adolescent female with a language learning disorder (LLD). The authors suggest that IM training may be a useful tool in the treatment of communication disorders for a wide range of clinical conditions. Jessica J. Sabado and Donald R. Fuller
2007 Psychology in the Schools Improvements in interval time tracking and effects on reading achievementA study published in the journal Psychology in Schools showed that children completing a training program with Interactive Metronome achieved accelerated reading outcomes. A gain of 7 – 20% in reading achievement was shown in the 49 children whose reading and pre-reading skills were pre and post-tested. Gordon E Taub, Kevin McGrew, and Timothy Z Keith
2006 White Paper The Effect of Interactive Metronome Training on Children’s SCAN-C ScoresThis pilot study by Joel Etra, PhD, SLP measured the effects of IM on children diagnosed with Central Auditory Processing Disorder. It showed that IM statistically significantly improved 4 areas of auditory processing in all the children tested. The largest increases occurred in dichotic listening, a measure of selective attention. Joel L. Etra
2005 Physiotherapy Theory and Practice Interactive Metronome1 training for a 9-year-old boy with attention and motor coordination difficultiesThis case study shows IM’s training results for a 9-year-old boy with attention and motor coordination difficulties being treated by physical therapists. Melinda L. Bartscherer, PT, MS and Robin L. Dole, PT, EdD, PCS
2004 White paper presented at national PM&R conference 2004 The role of functional MRI in defining auditory-motor processing networksA summary of a study using fMRI in defining the organs of the brain activated in repetitive auditory-motor training and the potential of IM to make improvements in those areas. Dr. Neal Alpiner: MD
2004 White paper presented at national ASHA conference 2004 Improving Motor Planning and Sequencing to Improve Outcomes in Speech and Language TherapyDr LorRaine Jones, a Speech-Language Pathologist helps explain the connection between IM’s timing exercises and improvements in speech and language therapy. LorRainne Jones, M.A.,CCC-SLP, Ph.D.
2003 White paper A study of 13 patients measured across a broad spectrum of function shows that gains made with IM are still present 6 months after therapy was completed. Lee E. Jacokes, Ph.D.
2003 White paper Processing speed and motor planning: the scientific background to the skills trained by Interactive Metronome® technologyA white paper by psychologist Dr. Susan Diamond explaining the scientific background to the benefits seen by using IM. Susan J. Diamond, Ph.D.
2003 White paper presented at the annual meeting of the National Association of Elementary School Principals Learning Problems and the Left BehindThis study of 40 4th and 5th grade “at risk” children showed dramatic gains in reading and math fluency in only 4 weeks. 40 similar students in the control group showed no improvement at all. Dr. Cindy Cason, Ph.D.
2003 White paper Interactive metronome- Underlying neurocognitive correlates of effectivenessA white paper by psychologist Dr Patrick Gorman explaining the underlying neuro-cognitive mechanisms of IM training. Dr. Patrick Gorman
2002 The Journal of General Psychology Training in timing improves accuracy in golfThis published study demonstrates a connection between IM’s timing exercises and improvements in complex movements as seen in dramatic improvements in golf shot accuracy. Terry M Libkuman and Hajime Otani
2002 High/Scope Press Timing in child developmentA study of 585 children found significant correlations between the students’ mental timing as measured by IM and their academic performance in reading, math, language, science, social studies and personal study skills. This study shows that brain timing plays a foundational role in a child’s academic performance. Kristyn Kuhlman and Lawrence Schweinhart
2001 American Journal of Occupational Therapy Theoretical and Clinical Perspectives on the Interactive Metronome: A View From Occupational Therapy PracticeThis published white paper includes the perspective of six Occupational Therapists describing IM’s usefulness in addressing school, home and social relationship problems in children. Jane Koomar, Jeannetta D Burpee, Valerie DeJean, Sheila Frick, Mary J Kawar and Deborah Murphy Fischer
2001 American Journal of Occupational Therapy Effect of Interactive Metronome Training on Children with ADHDA study of 56 pre-teen boys diagnosed with ADHD found that those using IM showed statistically significant improvement in attention and concentration, motor coordination, language processing, reading and math fluency and the ability to control impulsivity. Robert J Shaffer, Lee E. Jacokes, James F Cassiy, Stanley I Greenspan, Robert F Tuchman and Paul J Stemmer, Jr.